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Background: Hyperlipidemia is a predisposing factor to several cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart attacks and others.
Aim: This study investigate the hypolipidemic properties of five selected fruits using rats pre-fed with High Lipid Diet (HLD) under experimental conditions.
Methods: Raw fruit juices from Guava (Psidium guajava), Pawpaw (Carica papaya), Banana (Musa acuminata), Apple (Pyrus malus) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) respectively, were administered orally at a dose of 7 ml/kg body weight for 14 days. Sera from the experimental rats were prepared for total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) assay, while Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and Atherogenic Index (AI) were computed.
Results: Feeding the experimental rats with High Lipid Diet increased their levels of TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and AI by 68.73%, 72.94%, 20.23%, 71.79% and 208.72% respectively with a corresponding decrease in HDL by 29.47%. Pineapple juice significantly reduced the levels of TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and AI by 84.44%, 69.39%, 95.19%, 70.15% and 96.99% respectively. Guava, banana and apple treated groups produced 56.72%, 23.88% and 07.46% increase in HDL respectively, with a non-significant (p<0.05) value in pawpaw treated group, when compared to the HLD untreated control. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes and steroids in all fruit juices and the absence of balsams and phenols.
Conclusion: Consumption of the selected fruit juices improved lipid profile and reduced the risk associated with hyperlipidemia in experimental rats.
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