Main Article Content
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common endocrine disorder of human. However, the anti-diabetic activity of protein isolates from fermented plants seed for DM remains enigmatic. The prevalence of diabetes in Africa is exponentially increasing with more deaths occurring directly from diabetes mellitus or from its associated complications. The current study investigated the effect of Protein isolate from fermented melon seeds (Ogiri; OPI) of Cucumeropsis manni on blood glucose, hepatic and pancreatic protein profile, histopathological parameters, identification and characterisation of expressed proteins in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Thirty Male wistar rats were divided into nondiabetic control, STZ-diabetic control, STZ-Ogiri protein isolate supplemented group (STZ-OPI; 200 mg/kg diet), STZ-Ogiri protein isolate supplemented group (STZ-OPI; 600 g/kg diet) and STZ-glibenclamide treated group (STZ-GBN; 0.5 mg/kg diet). Diabetes was induced by a single injection of STZ (60 mg/kg BW) freshly dissolved in 0.1 mol/L citrate buffer (pH 4.5) into the intraperitonium. Diabetes was confirmed by measuring the fasting blood glucose concentration 48-h post-injection. The rats with blood glucose level above 290 mg/dL were considered to be diabetic. Ogiri protein isolates was supplemented in the diet for 6 weeks. The supplementation OPI reduced (P< 0.05) the blood glucose concentration of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. OPI supplemented groups had significantly higher percentage body weight gain. The high dose OPI supplemented group had a lowest liver protein concentration (19.39 mg/dl) but a significantly (P< 0.05) higher pancreas protein concentration when compared to all the diabetic control. Histological sections of examined tissue revealed accumulation of fat in the liver of diabetic rats and necrosis of the islet of Langerhans were observed in the pancreas. 1DE SDS-PAGE of hepatic and pancreatic tissue homogenates revealed differential expression of 150 kDa proteins in rats treated with 200 mg/kg body weight of OPI only and 20-25 kDa proteins in rats treated with 600 mg/kg body weight of OPI respectively. This result show that OPI supplementation may impose a direct or indirect inhibitory or post translational modification on specific proteins implicated in hyperglycemia and diabetes and as such be a potential antihyperglycemic agent in the management of diabetes.
Kazeem M, et al. Comparative study on the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of different extracts of Blighia sapida Koenig. American Journal of Research Communication. 2013;1(7):178-192.
Davis D, Richards T, Jiang S. Implementing a taxonomy for the development of a database for a type 2 diabetes mellitus preventative care personalized learning system; 2016.
Yates RD, Cai D. Bibliography of studies on women and gender in China since 2008. Nan Nü. 2018;20(1):3-152.
Awdeh Z, et al. A genetic explanation for the rising incidence of type 1 diabetes, a polygenic disease. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2006;27(3):174-181.
Gerich JE. The genetic basis of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Impaired insulin secretion versus impaired insulin sensitivity. Endocrine Reviews. 1998;19(4):491-503.
Sondergaard LM. Lao Development Report 2014. The World Bank; 2014.
Rai R, et al. High prospective fetal loss rate in untreated pregnancies of women with recurrent miscarriage and antiphospholipid antibodies. Human Reproduction. 1995;10(12):3301-3304.
Banerjee A, Mukherjee A. Chemical aspects of santalin as a histological stain. Stain Technology. 1981;56(2):83-85.
Adebayo GI, et al. Anti-diabetic properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Bougainvillea glabra (Glory of the Garden) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Records of Natural Products. 2009;3(4):187.
Afolayan AJ, Sunmonu TO. In vivo studies on antidiabetic plants used in South African herbal medicine. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 2010;47(2):98-106.
Bnouham M, et al. Medicinal plants with potential antidiabetic activity-A review of ten years of herbal medicine research (1990-2000). International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism. 2006;14(1):1.
Onawola O, Asagbra A, Faderin M. Comparative soluble nutrient value of ogiri obtained from dehulled and undehulled boiled melon seeds (Cucumeropsis mannii). J. Food Science and Quality Management. 2012;4:2224-6088.
Oyewole O, Odunfa S. Microbiological studies on cassava fermentation for ‘lafun’ production. Food Microbiology. 1988;5(3):125-133.
Nkosi C, Opoku A, Terblanche S. Effect of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the activity levels of certain plasma enzymes in CCl4‐induced liver injury in low‐protein fed rats. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives. 2005;19(4):341-345.
Hule AK, et al. An evaluation of the antidiabetic effects of Elaeocarpus ganitrus in experimental animals. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2011;43(1):56.
Nyuna ÃN, et al. Blood glucose lowering effect of aqueous leaf extracts of Ageratum conyzoides in rats. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2006;3(3):76-79.
Ogunyinka BI, et al. Protective effects of Parkia biglobosa protein isolate on streptozotocin-induced hepatic damage and oxidative stress in diabetic male rats. Molecules. 2017;22(10):1654.
Babu V, Gangadevi T, Subramoniam A. Antidiabetic activity of ethanol extract of Cassia kleinii leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and isolation of an active fraction and toxicity evaluation of the extract. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2003;35(5):290-296.
Owiredu W, Amegatcher G, Amidu N. Precision and accuracy of three blood glucose meters: Accu-chek advantage, one touch horizon and sensocard. J. Med. Sci. 2009;9(4):185-193.
Sharma A, et al. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Cucurbita maxima Duchense (pumpkin) seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2013;1(6).
Jayaraman R, et al. Antidiabetic effect of petroleum ether extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits against streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. Rom J. Biol Plant Biol. 2009;4:127-34.
Nalamolu RK, Boini KM, Nammi S. Effect of chronic administration of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. leaf extract on experimental diabetes in rats. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2004;3(1):305-309.
Fischer AH, et al. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of tissue and cell sections. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols. 2008;5:pdb.prot4986.
Bangle Jr. R. Gomori's paraldehyde-fuchsin stain. I. Physico-chemical and staining properties of the dye. Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry. 1954;2(4):291-299.
Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2010;87(1):4-14.
Skelly AH. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nursing Clinics. 2006;41(4):531-547.
Bailey CJ, Day C. Traditional plant medicines as treatments for diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1989;12(8):553-564.
Armstrong C. ADA updates standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus. American Family Physician. 2017;95(1):40-43.
Şanlier N, Gökcen BB, Sezgin AC. Health benefits of fermented foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2019;59(3):506-527.
Yeap SK, et al. Antihyperglycemic effects of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts on alloxan-induced-diabetic mice. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology; 2012.
Paula PC, et al. A protein isolate from Moringa oleifera leaves has hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Molecules. 2017;22(2):271.
Monago C, Alumanah E. Antidiabetic effect of chloroform-methanol extract of Abrus precatorius Linn seed in alloxan diabetic rabbit. J Appl Sci Environ Mgt. 2005;9(1):85-88.
Atchibri AOA, et al. Screening for antidiabetic activity and phytochemical constituents of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2010;4(17):1757-1761.
Falegan A. Enzymatic and haematological changes in rats (Rattus norvegecus) fed with defated ogiri (fermented Citrullus vulgaris) and melon seeds. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2014;4(17):133-140.
Ahamefule F, et al. Blood biochemistry and haematology of weaner rabbits fed sundried, ensiled and fermented cassava peel based diets. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2006;5(3):248-253.
Riyahi F, Mousavi SH, Riyahi S. Effect of moderate swimming exercise on hyperglycaemia, polyphagia, polydipsia and weight loss in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Annals of Military & Health Sciences Research. 2016;14(2).
Behl T, Kaur I, Kotwani A. Implication of oxidative stress in progression of diabetic retinopathy. Survey of Ophthalmology. 2016;61(2):187-196.
Aronson D. Hyperglycemia and the pathobiology of diabetic complications, in cardiovascular diabetology: Clinical, metabolic and inflammatory facets. Karger Publishers. 2008;1-16.
Du XL, et al. Hyperglycemia inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity by posttranslational modification at the Akt site. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2001;108(9):1341-1348.